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In this revision post, I shall combine chapters 23 and 24.


In chapter 23 there are only two major grammar points文法規則.

One is about using the noun とき and the other one is the causal relationship between sentences necessitated by the particle .



1 ~とき is for giving background time information on when the action of the main clause happens. Basically this is rather a continuation/further application of a grammar point  in lesson 22 about noun modification. The subordinate clause can be assumed to translate into English as “When ”.



When (you) borrow books from the library, a card is needed. 


This one is easy just use the 普通形speech in the subordinate clause you want to indicate as a time context for your main verb. Also as a reminder, nouns need the particle のand na adjectives need suffix because essentially とき is still a noun.


The lesson also distinguishes the importance of the tense of the predicate of the subordinate clause attached to とき。Basically when 辞書形 is used, it indicates the action on an abstract level or its non-completion with regards to the context. However when the plain past form is used, it indicates the completion of the action of the context.



  1. 国へ帰るとき、かばんをかいました。                                                

I bought a bag when I went back to my country

  1. 国へ帰ったとき、かばんをかいました。

I bought a bag when I went back to my country.

In the first example, the subordinate clause verb indicates that at the speaker HAD NOT REACHED his country YET and that he bought a bag somewhere along the way. In the next example, the subordinate clause verb indicates that the action was completed and the speaker bought a bag AFTER ARRIVING in the country.


2. ~と The particle is used as a conjunction allowing for causal relationships between sentences. Cause Inevitable effect. It is important to know that this grammar rule is strict that the effect should be inevitable. No presumptions, requests, commands for the effect sentence. This particle is also used for acts of nature, instructions as directions to go to a place, phenomenon that is VERY cyclical, or for personal behavior that is VERY LIKELY (90%~).


このボタンを押すとお釣りが出ます。 Push this button then the change will come out.

このつまみを回ると音が大きくなります。 Turn this knob and the sound’s volume would increase.

右へ曲がると郵便局があります。Turn right and then the post office will be there.


This one is easy just use the 普通形speech in the first sentence you want to indicate as  the cause. Nouns need the copula and na adjectives as well just in case you forget.



Now for my own sentences for this chapter:



When I am lonely, I go to Karaoke and eat stuff like sweet cake and chocolates.



When one loses his ID, he must to apply for a affidavit of loss.



When I eat prawns and the like, my allergies appear.



My company is at the right when you turn left right at the second corner from the station, then walk for about 20 meters straight and finally cross the bridge.


For chapter 24, 呉れる is introduced. So all the related verbs with 呉れる is also mentioned here in passing as a review. Another point in the lesson is how the verbs 呉れる、あげる、貰う when used as helping verbs (specifically when they are preceded with the conjunctive form of another verb) show a favor is done to someone by somebody. The helping verb used determines what direction and implication the favor does to the indirect object or the speaker.



1. 呉れる This translates to English as, “to give (me or someone from my in group)”. The more important aspect of this grammar is that the indirect object marked by the particle is a person (I think a thing is also applicable) is either the speaker or some other that is part of speaker’s “IN” group. The subject needs not to be related to the speaker anyway.



Mr. Sato gave me a Christmas card.


Just use it as your verb to mean “give” when the indirect object marked by the particle is the speaker (you, probably) or is part of the speaker’s in group.


2.form + {貰う、あげる、呉れる} This form is used to refer to the giving and receiving of actions as favors. They indicate who is doing the act for whom while also expressing a sense of goodwill and gratitude.



I lent a book to Mr. Kimura



I was taught the hospital’s telephone number by Mr. Yamada



My mom sent me a sweater.


When using this form with ~てあげる, the speaker being the subject/actor and the listener being the receiver of the act, this expression could give the impression that the speaker is being patronizing. It is recommended to avoid using this expression directly to someone whom you do not know very well, who is senior or is superior in rank. You however, may use this construction with whom you have close friendly relationships with. 



My own sentences:


The old man gave my grandmother some various treats as souvenir



The boss taught the junior the way to use the machine.



My aunt sent me my electronic dictionary.